He built astronomical observatory at Daulatabad. In-order-to fulfill his ambition of a great conqueror; he planned to conquer the kingdom of Khurasan which was then ruled by Iraq. BrahmaguptaD. (ix) Aryabhatta’s theories on eclipse- distinct departure from orthodox theories of astrology. (ii) Dhanvantari- God of medicine. A large number of officers and guards were appointed to look after the project. The great Bahmani king, Firuz (1397–1422), for example, encouraged botany, geometry, and logic. The Sultan had set up rest houses on the way to help the travellers. He could have tried more to improve it. He did a great mistake by dropping this project just after one failure. At first a large area of land say sixty square miles in area was taken up in the project. But it came at a time when the Doab region was at famine. Question 7:Which of the following was/were centres of medicinal learning during ancient times? Many perished on the long route of 700 miles to Daulatabad. His coronation ceremony was duly performed in the Red Palace of Balban. But lb Batuta gives a complete different reason for this transfer of capital. (xviii) After advent of Mughals^ manufacture of gunpowder and its use in guns started. Present form of Judo & karate originated from it. (v) Development of metallurgy in India- from Bronze Age. According to Standly Lane-poole, “Daulatabad was a monument of misdirected energy.”. Rasaratnakara 3. Both (a) & (b)D. Neither (a) nor (b)ExplanationSushruta flourished c. 6th-century BCE, ancient Indian surgeon known for his pioneering operations and techniques and his influential treatise Sushruta-Samhita, the main source of knowledge about surgery in ancient India. Mehendra Suri, a court astronomer of Firoz Shah developed an astronomical instrument calledYantraja.ParameshvaraandMahabhaskariyawerefamousfamiliesofastronomers and almanac … He recruited one lakh soldiers for this purpose and paid them one year’s salary in advance. (viii) Best evidences of Indian metallurgy- Iron pillar of Mehrauli in Delhi & idol of Gautama Buddha in Sultanganj, Bihar → have not caught rust. They were supplied with all sorts of agricultural instruments and seeds. According to Hemadri, he then established the Devagiri city, which became the new Yadava capital. Legends recorded by Al-Biruni in the eleventh century say that he was born in the village of Daihak near in Gujarat "one hundred years ago," i.e., at the start of the tenth century. in the north of Karnataka and the interregnum of Hyder Ali and Tippu Sultan(1761-1799 C.E.) The true predecessors of the modern observatory were those established in the Islamic world. (xi) Ain-i-Akbari- “regulation of perfume office” of Akbar. (vi) Nilakantha Somasutvan wrote Tantrasamgraha, which contains rules of trigonometric functions. (viii) Apastamba (second century BC) → introduced concepts of practical geometry involving acute angles, obtuse angles & right angles. But Devagiri would be a safe place and almost free from Mongol raids. Muhammad-bin- Tughlaq could not stop the forging of new coins. The distance from Delhi to Daulatabad (Devagiri) was nearly 1500 km. (xii) Sawai Jai Singh MEDICINE (i) Vedic times → Ashwini Kumars were practisioners of medicine & were given divine status. (xiv) He said presence of termites (Deemak) & plants could indicate presence of water in that particular area. His increase of tax in the fertile Doab region was not at all in-correct. Considering all those factors he decided to introduce a bronze coin which was to have the same value as the silver tanka. Sushruta flourished c. 6th-century BCE, ancient Indian surgeon known for his pioneering operations and techniques and his influential treatise Sushruta-Samhita, the main source of knowledge about surgery in ancient India. At first Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq wanted to make an assessment of the total income and expenditure of the country. (a) Muhammad Bin Tughlak (b) Feroz Shah Tughlak (c) Feroz Shah Bahmani (d) Ahmed Shah Bahmani 47.Who was the first Portuguese Governor General of India? He not only saved his capital from the Mongol raids but also ensured the proper administrative rule in both the northern and southern part of the India.His rule is also significant for the introduction… Muhammad- bin-Tughlaq introduced bronze coins in place of silver and gold but there remained certain defects which made him a big failure in this experiment. Bile, 2. In spite of high qualification and knowledge, Sultan Muhamad-bin- Tughlaq suffered from certain qualities of hastiness and impatience that is why many of his experiments failed and he has been called an ill starred idealist. OphthalmologyC. He was very much faithful to his own religion and obeyed the religious rites and was regular at his daily prayers. Failure in both the military expeditions as well as his inability to defend the Mongols made him unpopular. Question 8:Chaturanga, a sport in ancient times is presently played by the name- A. JudoB. During my ten days in the city I took it upon myself to… Siddhanta ShiromaniExplanationThe Shulba Sutras are part of the larger corpus of texts called the Shrauta Sutras, considered to be appendices to the Vedas. (vii) Value of Pi given by him is much more accurate than that given by the Greeks. For thousands of year these ghats have been the centre for religion, culture and commerce, offering an unrivaled panorama for visitors to the city. Production of paer is not known in the ancient India. Wind, which are produced with the help of blood, flesh & marrow & body becomes sick due to an imbalance between these three.- Prevention rather than cure.- Genetics is also mentioned.Sushruta Samhita- Mentions practical problems of Surgery & Obstetrics.- Sushruta studied anatomy.- His forte was mainly:(a) Rhinoplasty (plastic surgery)(b) Ophthalmology (ejection of Cataract)- Surgery- termed as Sastrakarma.- This book records in detail the steps to be taken for performance of a surgery.- Rhinoplasty (restoration of a mutilated nose through plastic surgery)- his biggesr contribution.- Ejection of cataracts from eye was even done by him. This observatory has established nothing new, but it gives a glimpse to the books on which it was built and leaves us amazed. Smith have agreed that the Sultan Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq was affected by some degree of insanity. Among regional rulers, Firuz shah Bahamani set up an observatory at Daulatabad. (iii) Yukti Kalpa Taru- treatise in Sanskrit which deals with the various techniques used in ship building during ancient times. The untimely death of Hakim Hashim Gilani, the astronomer who was to supervise the observatory, put an end to the project. There were also some corrupt officials who misappropriated a huge amount of production and money. In spite of this he was misunderstood by his subjects. Several factors prompted him to take this decision. Hence, it was an invention not by John Napier but by Mahaviracharya. Both lunar and solar calendars were in use. AgramandiraD. (vii) Sanskrit terminologies for various parts of the ship are:- Anchor of ship - Nava bandhan kilaha- Sail - Vata vastra- Rudder of ship - Jeni pata or karna- Keel of the ship - Nava tala- Compass of the ship - Machayantra or fish machine (in shape of a fish). The Shulba Sutras are part of the larger corpus of texts called the Shrauta Sutras, considered to be appendices to the Vedas. The department’s main work was to find out uncultivated lands and make all sorts of arrangements for the cultivation of horse lands. Sir Woolreley Haig has accepted the version of Ibn Batuta, Isami also says that the Sultan Muhammad-bin-Tughlaq resolved to break-up the power of the citizens of Delhi and therefore, decided to transfer the capital. (xvi) Paper Production- Kashmir, Patna, Murshidabad, Ahmedabad, Aurangabad, Mysore. (vi) Indian philosophers Kanada & Pakudha Katyayana (6th century BC) → first coined the idea of atoms & material world being constituted of atoms. The huge population was moved to Daulatabad in order to set up the rule of Tughlaq dynasty in the city. He was interested also in astronomy, and in 1407 started work on an observatory near Daulatabad. The new coins also began to be greatly devalued in the markets. Diseases, their pathogenesis, signs and symptoms, treatment, and complications are described in such a depth that it leaves us wondering as to how Sushruta could have developed precise clinical skills simultaneously in all parts of medical science including medicine, surgery, plastic surgery, anaesthesia, ophthalmology, midwifery, genetics, anatomy, and diabetes. The inscriptions of this dynasty, as well as those of contemporary kingdoms, the Hoysala, Kakatiya dynasty and Western Chalukyas call them Seunas. (v) Geometric patterns- found in temples in form of geometrical motifs. (xvii) He related earthquake to influence of plants, behaviour of animals, underground water, undersea activities & unusual cloud formation. Both (a) & (b)ExplanationYukti-kalpataru specifies one class of ships called agramandira (because they had their cabins towards the prows), as eminently adapted for naval warfare (rane kale ghanatyaye). 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